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Clamp or map a number to a range in JavaScript

Clamping a number means to restrict it to a certain range. Mapping a number to a range means to convert it from one range to another. Both operations are common in JavaScript and can be easily implemented using simple math.

Clamp a number

In order to clamp a number, you can use Math.max() and Math.min() to find the closest value within the specified range.

const clampNumber = (num, a, b) =>
  Math.max(Math.min(num, Math.max(a, b)), Math.min(a, b));

clampNumber(2, 3, 5); // 3
clampNumber(1, -1, -5); // -1

Convert a number to a safe integer

A special case of clamping a number is converting it to a safe integer. You can use the Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER and Number.MIN_SAFE_INTEGER constants to find the closest safe value. Additionally, use Math.round() to convert to an integer.

const toSafeInteger = num =>
    Math.max(Math.min(num, Number.MAX_SAFE_INTEGER), Number.MIN_SAFE_INTEGER)

toSafeInteger('3.2'); // 3
toSafeInteger(Infinity); // 9007199254740991

Map a number to a range

Mapping a number to a range is a simple linear transformation. Provided the original and the target range, you can map between the limits of the two ranges.

const mapNumRange = (num, inMin, inMax, outMin, outMax) =>
  ((num - inMin) * (outMax - outMin)) / (inMax - inMin) + outMin;

mapNumRange(5, 0, 10, 0, 100); // 50

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